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2015年成考专升本英语词汇与语法:动词4

(十一) 将来完成时

表示在将来某一时间之前完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。

将来完成时的谓语形式: will (shall) have+ 过去分词

I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.

Before long, he will have forgotten all about the matter.(before long 不久)

How many words will you have learnt by the end of the term?

When we get there they'll probably have left.

He will have finished his term paper by the end of this month.

1. My niece has been to Sumatra(苏门达腊) and Iran(伊朗) as well as all of Europe. By the time she's twenty, she ______ almost everywhere.

A. will be B. would be C. will have been D. would have been

答案 C

2. By the time you get to Greenwich you ________ the most historic parts of London.

A. will be seeing B. will see

C. are going to see D. will have seen

答案 D

主要复习了动词的十一个时态。重点记忆主句将来时,时间状语从句、条件状语从句用一般现 在时。现在完成时中for和since的区别,for接一段连续的时间状语,since接过去时句子或过去的时间状语。有for或since的现在完成时 句子中,动词只可以是表延续的动词。现在完成进行时可以接所有的动词。

进行时态的运用往往根据上下文来决定。

Be quiet, everybody. The students of Class One are having a listening test.

When I was cooking these potatoes, I forgot to put any salt in it.

在运用完成时态时,应特别注意表示瞬息间动作的动词不能与for 引导的一段时间状语连用。

瞬息间动词往往须换成"be+副词/介词结构"的形式,或选用句式"It is / has been + 时间状语 + since ……"来表态。

1."Have the visitors arrived?"

"Yes, they have been here for an hour."

2.By the time we got to the cinema, the film _______ for half an hour.

A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. had been on

(begun不表延续,答案 D)

3.It has been less than three months since she joined the army. / she has been in the army for less than three months.(不能说 She has joined the army for less than three months.)

过去完成时也是一个相对的时态,是在过去的某个时间或动作之前发生的事。

1.He has already gone home. But before he left, he _________ all the mistakes in his translation.

A. had corrected B. has corrected C. would correct D. will correct

(答案 A)

2.He showed me the pictures he had taken of the animals the day before.

过去将来时也是一个相对的时态,是在过去的某个时间看将要发生的事。

I had a discussion with my tutor and hoped he would give us an early reply.

He said they were going to spend the weekend in the countryside.

四、被动语态

(一)被动语态的构成:be+过去分词

一般现在时 am / is / are +过去分词

一般过去时 was / were +过去分词

一般将来时 shall / will + be +过去分词

过去将来时 should / would + be +过去分词

现在进行时 am / is / are + being +过去分词

过去进行时 was / were + being +过去分词

现在完成时 have / has + been +过去分词

过去完成时 had been +过去分词

情态动词 情态动词+ be +过去分词

(二)被动语态的基本用法

当句子的主语和谓语呈被动关系,即主语是动作的承受者时(相对于执行者),谓语要用被动语态。具体说来,被动语态主要用于以下两种情况:

1.不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者。

Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

Such books are written for children.

Everything has been taken away.

When will the museum be opened for the public?

I was born in 1980.

2.动作的承受者是谈话的中心。

The composition was written with great care.

These questions are settled through negotiation.(negotiation 谈判)

The flowers will be planted next week.

He is said to be a good teacher.

For this he was often made fun of.(make fun of 开玩笑)

若要同时将动作的执行者表达出来,往往可以在执行者前面加上by。

I'm puzzled by what the teacher has said.

The door was locked by me when I left the room last night.

The construction of the road has been held up by a flood.(hold up 阻碍、阻挡)

He was sent to school by his parents when he was only five years old.

(三)被动句与主动句的关系

被动句的主语实际上是主动句的宾语,主动句变为被动句时,主语往往被省略。

We asked the teacher to explain the difficult sentences again.-The teacher was asked to explain the difficult sentences again.

I found a poor girl lying on the ground.-The poor girl was found lying on the ground.

My mother bought me a pair of new shoes.-I was bought a pair of new shoes; -A pair of new shoes was bought for me.

When we came to the theatre, we found all the seats occupied.-When we came to the theatre, all the seats were found occupied.

They paint their houses white in spring.-Their houses are painted white in spring.

The people in the town recognize him as a genius.-He is recognized as a genius by the people in the town.

有些动词,如let, make, hear, see, watch, notice, have(让,使), feel 等,在主动语态中,其后面的不定式作宾语补足语时to 被省略,但在被动语态中需将to表达出来。在被动语态中,如果一个简单句中有两个动词,后一动词一定要加to.

I saw him turn round the corner.-He was seen to turn round the corner.

The teacher made the students copy the sentences many times until they could make sentences themselves.-The students were made to copy the sentences many times until they could make sentences themselves.

含有被动意义的主动语态:

(1)某些连系动词,如smell, taste, sound, prove, feel.

The flowers smell sweet.

The food tastes nice.

(2) 某些与can't, won't 等连用的不及物动词, 如move, lock, shut, open.

It can't move.(不能说 It can't be moved.)

The door won't shut.

(3) 某些可和well, easily等副词连用的不及物动词,如read, write, wash, clean, draw, burn, cook.

The cloth washes well.

The poem reads smoothly.

The meat is cooking.

动词的语态部分主要应掌握被动语态的基本用法及其在不同的时态中的表现形式。

1.It remains a question when the new classroom building _________.

A. will be completed B. had been completed

C. would be completed D. has been completed

(答案 A)

2.My mother knows Jane; they _____ to each other at a party.

A. have been introduced B. are introduced

C. were introduced D. had been introduced

(主动语态:introduce sb. to sb.)

(答案 C)

被动语态部分还须特别注意动词make, hear, see等词,其后面用动词不定式作补足语时,to 应该保留。

Those who won't work should be made to work.

The teacher was made to give up his teaching because of poor health.(give up 放弃;health 名词;healthy 形容词;breath 名词;breathe 动词)

1. In modern times, great female chefs have become known, and some of the best cook books _______ by women.

A. have written B. are written C. were written D. have been written

答案 D

2. ________ a new shopping center will be built here next year.

A. He is said B. It has said C. It is said C. It says

It is said that 据说

答案 C

3. New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they _______ fully.

A. accept B. receive C. are accepted D. are received

they 指代new ideas

receive:1.收到别人给予的东西,不含收件人是否愿意接受之义。

I received a letter from a good friend of mine yesterday.

2.也可表示"得到", "领受","遭受"之意。

The book was favorably received by the public.

Accept: "收到",强调主观意愿决定"接受","收授"。而receive只表示收到,不一定接受。

She received a gift from him, but did not accept it.

receive 与 accept 在表示赞成某一看法,意见时可以换用。

The moral code is now received / accepted by all.

答案 C

4. In some parks visitors _________ to keep off the grass.

A. request B. requests C. are requested D. is requested

keep off 远离

答案 C

5. He remembered ________ to the zoo by his father when he was little.

A. taking B. being taken C. to have taken D. have been taken

remeber doing 记得过去做的事情

答案 B

6. English ________ in a new way at my college in the past few years.

A. has been teaching B. was being taught

C. has been taught D. had been taught

in the past few years 近几年。现在完成时

答案 C

7. All the machines _______ next month.

A. will be repaired B. will repair

C. will have repaired D. will have repair

被动语态必不可少的时系动词be

答案 A

8. The rooms were then empty and most of them _______.

A. have shut up B. had shut up

C. have been shut up D. had been shut up

答案 D

9. When they had finished playing, the children were made _______ all the toys they had taken out.

A. put away B. to put away

C. putting away D. be put away

put away 将某物收起来,放入箱子或抽屉

答案 B

分析句子首先要判断主语能不能发出谓语的动作,如果不能发出动作,就选择被动语态,然后再考虑不同的时态。


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